تأثیر بازارگرایی صادرات بر افزایش صادرات در صنعت خشکبار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ستادیار گروه مدیریت دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت مالی، دانشکده اقتصاد و مدیریت دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

4 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت اجرایی، دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه آزاد تهران مرکز، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/jiba.2019.7225

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر رفتار بازارگرایی صادرات بر عملکرد صادرات با در نظر گرفتن متغیر میانجی اثربخشی بازاریابی در شرکت­های صادراتی محصولات خشکبار است. بنابراین، پژوهش­حاضر از نظر هدف، توصیفی ـ پیمایشی، از نظر نوع استفاده، کاربردی و از نظر افق زمانی، مقطعی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل 120 نفر از کارشناسان بخش صادرات 20 شرکت برتر صادرکننده محصولات خشکبار می­باشد که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده تعداد 93 به‌عنوان اعضای نمونه انتخاب شدند. نتایج تحلیل آماری با استفاده از نرم­افزار PLS نشان داد که رفتار بازارگرایی صادرات بر اثربخشی بازارابی تأثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد.  نتایج همچنین نشان داد که اثربخشی بازاریابی بر عملکرد صادرات تأثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد و همچنین نتایج نشان داد که رفتار بازارگرایی صادرات بر عملکرد صادرات شرکت های صادرکننده محصولات خشکبار تأثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد. در پایان نتایج نشان داد که رفتار بازارگرایی صادرات از طریق اثربخشی بازاریابی منجر به بهبود عملکرد صادرات می شود.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of export market orientation on export growth with emphasis on the mediating variable marketing effectiveness (case study: dry goods export companies)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Norouzi 1
  • Sajad Abdollahpour 2
  • Somayeh Ganjali Vand 3
  • Seyedeh Ghazal Masoomi 4
1 Assistant professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
2 . MSc, Marketing Management, Faculty of economic and management, Farabi campus of Tehran University, Qom, Iran.
3 MSc, Financial Management, faculty of management and accounting, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
4 MSc, EMBA, faculty of management and accounting, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Companies and countries put exports as their main strategy in order to reach more market segments, increase revenues, and obtain scarce resources, low costs, competitive advantages and economic growth (Hoang, 2016; Acikdlli, 2013). Considering the major role of exports in developing and improving the economies of the countries, in this research, we seek to examine the effect of export market behavior on improving export performance by considering the mediating variable of marketing effectiveness in Dry Goods Export Companies.
 
Methods
In terms of objective, the study is a survey work, an applied work as to the purpose, and a cross-sectional work as to time horizon. Study population consisted of 120 export experts in 20 top dry goods export companies. All of these companies have central offices in Tehran province and their specifications are available in Iran's Dehydrated Exporter Union. Through random sampling and using a Jersey-Morgan table, 93 experts were elected as subjects. Statistical analyses were done in PLS. Validity of the questionnaire was assessed by two convergent and divergent validity criteria, which is specific to structural equation modeling.
 
Findings and Argument
In this research, Statistical analyses were done in PLS.  In the PLS, the hypotheses are rejected or confirmed by the T statistic and if the T statistic is higher than 1.96, it indicates the existence of a causal relationship between the variables and the hypothesis is confirmed. According to the structural equation model, the effect of export market behavior on the marketing effectiveness is significant. In other words, the value of T statistic is greater than 1.96 (26.33). Therefore, this relationship is significant. On the other hand, the path coefficient according to Figure 3 is positive, which is equal to (0.89). Export market behavior has a positive and significant effect on export performance. In other words, the value of the t statistic is higher than 1.96, and the path coefficient of these two variables is positive and strong. Also, marketing effectiveness has a positive and significant effect on the export performance of the organization. In other words, the statistic t is higher than 1.96 and the positive path coefficient is also positive. Therefore, these hypotheses were confirmed. Table 1 shows the results of the analysis using the structural equation model to test the research hypotheses:
 
Table 1. Test results





Test result


T


Path coefficient


hypothesis




Confirmed


26.33


0.89


1. Export marketing behavior has a positive and significant effect on marketing effectiveness.




Confirmed


2.15


0.80


2. Export market behavior has a positive and significant effect on export performance.




Confirmed


4.35


0.86


3. Marketing effectiveness has a positive and significant effect on the export performance..




Confirmed


-


0.76


4. Export market behavior has a positive and significant effect on the export performance through the marketing effectiveness. .





 
Conclusion
Regarding the many problems that most of our Dry Goods Export Companies are facing in terms of increasing their exports, in this research, we tried to examine the impact of market orientation of these companies and the effectiveness of marketing activities on the increase and export performance. All the hypotheses of this research were confirmed. According to the results of the research, the following suggestions could be made for the companies that export the products:
- Designing customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction indicators in order to positively influence the behavior of market orientation on export performance and knowledge of customers' point of view.
- A permanent presence at domestic and international exhibitions to identify the latest trends in the development of new products and a variety of support services for this industry.
- Launching international market research units to identify customers' needs and demands.

منابع
حیدری، حسنعلی و بیگلری، حشمت الله (1394)، الگویی ساختاری برای رابطه بین بازارمحوری، مزیت رقابتی و عملکرد صادرات (مطالعه موردی: شرکت های واقع در شهرک های صنعتی شهرستان سنندج)، اولین کنفرانس مدیریت و کارآفرینی در شرایط اقتصادی مقاومتی، صفحه7-10.
زراعی، عظیم و موتمنی، علیرضا و فیض، داود و کردنائیج، اسداله و فارسی زاده، حسین (1395)، نقش رفتار کارآفرینی گرایی صادراتی در ارتقای عملکرد صادراتی بنگاه ها با تبیین نقش میانجی کسب مزیت رقابتی، پژوهش هایمدیریتعمومی، سال نهم، شماره 34، صفحه 178-155.
محمدیان، محمود و الله وردی، مصطفی و سلیمی، امیر (1392)، بررسی تأثیر بازارگرایی صادرات و مزیت رقابتی بر عملکرد صادرات (مورد مطالعه: صادرکنندگان نمونة ایران در سال1390)، مدیریت بازرگانی، دوره پنجم، شماره4، صفحه 78-61.
 
Acikdilli, G. (2013).  The Effect of Marketing Capabilities and Export Market Orientation on Export Performance.Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Reserch in Business, 5 (6): 30- 59.
Ahimbisibwe, G.M., Ntayi, J.M., & Ngoma, M. (2013). Export market orientation, innovation and performance of fruit exporting firms in Uganda. European Scientific Journal, 9(4): 295-313.
Appiah-Adu, K., Fyall, A., & Satyendra, S. (2001). Marketing effectiveness and business performance in the financial service industry. Journal of Services Marketing, 15(1):18-34.
Barjas, M, G., Alotaibi & Yabin Zhang. (2017). The relationship between export market orientation and export performance: an empirical study. Applied Economics,49(23):1-7.
Cadogan, J. W., Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2002). Export market-oriented activities: their antecedents and performance consequences. Journal of international business studies, 615-626.
Cambra-Fierro, J.J., Hart, S., Polo-Redondo, Y., & Fuster-Mur, A. (2012). Market and learning orientation in times of turbulence: relevance questioned? An analysis using a multi-case study. Quality & Quantity, 46 (3): 855-871.
Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., & Newsted, P. R. (1996). A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and voice mail emotion /adoption study. Information Systems Research, 189 - 217.
Dodd, C. (2005). Export Market Orientation and Performance: An Analysis of Australian Exporters, ANZMAX 2005 conference: Marketing in international and cross-cultural environments, Retrieved from. 28-34.http://www.anzmac.org/conference_archive/2005/cd-site/pdfs/9- Marketing-Int-C-Cultural-Env/9-Dodd.pdf
Fyall, A., Appiah-Adu, K., & Satyendra, S. (2001). Marketing effectiveness and business performance in the financial services industry. Journal of Services Marketing, 15 (1): 18-34.
García, A, N., Jorge A, G., & Javier, R, C. (2014). External environment and the moderating role of export market orientation. Journal of Business Research,67, 740–745.
Ghorbani, H., Dalvi, M. R., & Hirmanpour, I. (2014). Studying the effect of market orientation on marketing effectiveness case study: Hotels in Isfahan province. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,4 (1): 570-579.
Grandinetti, R., & Mason, M.C. (2012). Internationalization modes other than exporting: The missing determinant of export performance. European Business Review, 21 (3): 236-254.
Hulland, J. (1999). use of partial least squares(pls)in sterategic management research: a review of four recent studies. sterategice management journal,20 (2): 195-204.
Hoang, P. (2016). Relationship of Export Market Orientation, Selected Export Strategy, and Export Performance: An Empirical Study. Global Journal of Management and BusinessResearch, 15 (6):25-32.
Hou, J-J., & Chien, Y-T. (2010). The effect of market knowledge management competence on business performance: A dynamic capabilities perspective. International Journal of Electronic Business Management,8 (2) L:96-109.
Julian, C.C., Mohamad, O., Ahmed, Z. U & Sefnedi, S. (2014). The market orientation– performance relationship: The empirical link in export ventures. Thunderbird International Business Review, 56 (1): 97-110.
Kayabaş, A., & Mtetwa T. (2016). Impact of marketing effectiveness and capabilities, and export market orientation on export performance: evidence from Turkey. European Business Review, 28 (5): 1-30.
Keh, H.T., Chu, S. & Xu, J. (2006). Efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of marketingin services. European Journal of Operational Research, 170 (1): 265-276.
Krammer ,Sorin M.S., Strange ,R., & Lashitew, A.(2017). The export performance of emerging economy firms: The influence of firm capabilities and institutional environments. International Business Review, 27 (1): 1- 13.
Kotler, P., & Keller, K.L. (2006), Marketing Management, 12th Edition, Prentice Hall, NY.
Leonidou, C. N. & Leonidou, L. C. (2011). Research into environmental marketing/ management: A bibliographic analysis. European Journal of Marketing, 45 (1/2):68-103.
Lancaster, G. and Massingham, L. (2011). Essentials of Marketing Management, Routledge, London.
Lin, K, H., Kuo-Feng, H., & Yao-Ping, P. (2014). Impact of export market orientation on export performance: A relational perspective. Baltic Journal of Management, 9 (4):403-425.
Luiz, J., Stringfellow, D., & Jefthas, A. (2017). Institutional complementarity and substitution as an internationalization strategy: The emergence of an African multinational giant. Global Strategy Journal, 7 (1):83–103.
Mavondo, F.T. (2005). Environment and strategy as antecedents for marketing effectivenessand organizational performance. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 7 (4):237-250.
Mohd, M., & Arshad. (2009). Market Orientation Critical Success Factors of Malaysian Manufacturers and Its Impact On Financial Performance. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 1 (1):77-84.
Morgan, N.A., Vorhies, D.W., & Mason, C. (2009). Market orientation, arketing capabilities, and firm performance. Strategic Management journal, 30 (8): 909-920.
Murray, J.Y., Gao, G.Y. & Kotabe, M. (2011). Market orientation and performance of export ventures: The process through marketing capabilities and competitive advantages.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39 (2): 252-269.
Navarro, A., Losada, F., Ruzo, E., & Diez, J. A. (2010). Implications of perceived competitive advantages, adaptation of marketing tactics and export commitment on export performance. Journal of World Business, 45 (1): 49–58.
Nwokah, N.G. and Ondukwu, F.E. (2009). Competitive intelligence and marketing effectiveness in corporate organisation in Nigeria. African Journal of Marketing Management,1 (1): 10-22.
Olimpia, C., Chewit, C., & Amonrant, T. (2006). Market Orientation, International Business Relationships and perceived Export Perfomance. International Marketing Review,24 (2):144-63.
Rambocas, M., Meneses, R., Monteiro, C. & Quelhas Brito, P. (2015). Direct or indirect channel structures. Evaluating the impact of channel governance structure on export performance. International Business Review, 24 (1): 124-132.
Pascucci, F., Sara B., & Gian, L, G. (2016). Export marketorientation and international performance in the context of SMEs.Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship,28 (5):361-375.
Sousa, C. M. P., Lengler, J. F. B., & Martínez-López, F. J. (2014). Testing for linear and quadratic effects between price adaptation and export performance: The impact of values and perceptions. Journal of Small Business Management, 52, 501–520.
Trustrum, L.B. (1989). Marketing: concept and function. European Journal of Marketing, 23(3): 48-66.
Tsiotsou, R. H. (2010). Delineating the effect of market orientation on services performance: a component-wise approach. The Service Industries Journal, 30 (3): 375-403.
Tuan, L.T. (2012). Marketing effectiveness and its precursors. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 24 (1): 125-152.
Wang, E.T.G., Hu, H-F. And Hu, P.J-H. (2013). Examining the role of information technology in cultivating firms dynamic marketing capabilities. Information and Management, 50(6): 336-343.
Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schroder, G., & Van Open. (2009). Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: Guidelines and empirical illustration,.MIS Quarterly, 33 (1): 177.